The day Caesar crossed the Rubicon – level 3

10-01-49 BC

Rome had already been a republic for over 400 years, covering half of the known world. Rome was under the rule of three consuls. One of them was Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar’s wanted to conquer new areas in Gaul which was a part of today’s France. Caesar was a great tactician who was looked up to by his soldiers who were willing to blindly follow his orders. Caesar’s military campaigns were successful, and he soon made a fortune. His popularity grew so much that people in Rome started to fear him.

In 50 BC, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome because his term in Gaul had ended. Caesar set out on a journey, and on January 10, 49 BC, he reached the border of the Roman Empire at the Rubicon River. According to law, any military leader who returned to Rome had to disband his army on the border. If the leader disobeyed the law, he became the enemy of the state.

By crossing the Rubicon with his army, Caesar disobeyed the law and advanced to Rome. After coming to Rome, Caesar conquered it and became a dictator. He made new laws and became the unlimited ruler of the Roman Empire.

Difficult words: consul (a person who ruled the republic in ancient Rome), tactician (a person who uses a carefully planned strategy to achieve something), fortune (a lot of money), BC (before Christ), set out (to start a journey), disband (to break up an organized group of people), disobey (not to follow a law).

What was Julius Caesar's intention when he crossed the Rubicon with his army and entered Rome, thereby disobeying the law of disbanding his army at the border?


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